What is apicoectomy?
It is an operation applied to remove the infection that develops at the root apex of the teeth, and to clean the inflamed root apex and the surrounding tissues where the inflammation spreads.

In which cases is apicoectomy applied?
In cases where root canal treatment cannot be performed due to structural and deformity of the tooth root,
In cases where the root canal tool is broken during root canal treatment,
In cases where a cyst occurs at the root of the tooth,
In cases where root canal treatment cannot be performed due to structural and deformity of the tooth root,
In cases where a cyst occurs at the root of the tooth.

I had a tooth extraction. What should I do or what should I not do?
Nothing should be eaten until the numbness is gone,
Tissues can be bitten,
Hot bath should not be taken, heat should be avoided,
No smoking, no alcohol consumption,
Ice application is recommended.

What are the Procedures To Be Done After Tooth Extraction?
The tampon placed on the extraction area is to stop the bleeding. Therefore, it must be bitten for half an hour. In addition, care should be taken not to use very hot food, alcohol, cigarettes and beverages containing acid. At night after tooth extraction, you should lie on a high pillow and never use aspirin and similar drugs as pain relievers, and the drugs recommended by your doctor should be used. If a surgical extraction or a difficult extraction was performed, ice should be applied to the area from the outside intermittently.

What Does The Operation of Impacted Wisdom Tooth Mean?
Impacted third molars tooth almost always pose a problem for many reasons, such as lack of space in the jaws, early loss of milk teeth, and the thickness of the mucosa covering the tooth. The extraction of impacted wisdom teeth is applied differently due to the differences in their positions and anatomical curvatures in their roots.

Should Every Wisdom Tooth Be Extracted?
Wisdom teeth, which are fully stuck in the mouth, do not need to be extracted if they can be easily cleaned and there is no deep caries formation on them. However, wisdom teeth that cannot be easily cleaned with dental floss and brushes, that have caries that cannot be treated, and that continue to the cheek or tongue, causing the person to bite their cheeks and tongue involuntarily, can be extracted.

Who may receive implant treatment?
Individuals with normal wound healing,
Individuals who can ensure oral hygiene,
Individuals with sufficient amount or who may have sufficient amount of bone structure,
Implants can be applied to people who do not have a systemic disability for implant construction.

Is there a lower age limit in implant treatment?
In order for an implant to be applied to an individual, the individual's bone development must be completed. Bone development is completed at the age of 16-17 in girls and at the age of 18 in boys. Therefore, the implant cannot be applied before these ages, and it can be applied after these ages. There is no upper limit. There is no upper age limit.

In which cases can implant application be made?
On lower and upper jaws without teeth: Implant-supported dental prosthesis can be applied if the prosthesis has started to move due to bone resorption and the retention has decreased.
In case of loss of molars, if the posterior region ends without teeth and the patient does not want to use removable prosthesis, a fixed dental porcelain bridge can be made by placing implants.
To protect the front and back teeth in case of missing single tooth: An implant is placed in the bone for the individual with missing tooth, and then the upper dental porcelain structure is placed.
Implants are placed as bridge pillars in long edentulous spaces and then a bridge is made.

In which cases is implant application not considered appropriate?
If the bone structure in the jaw is not appropriate and there is a risk of damaging the anatomical formations (nerve, sinus), the implant is not placed.
Implants should not be applied to individuals with heart disease without consulting their physician.
In patients with bleeding-coagulation problems, implants should not be placed without taking precautions and eliminating the problem.
Implants should not be placed in uncontrolled Diabetes (diabetes) patients without regulating the glocose rate and consulting their doctor.
If the socio-economic status of the patient is not able to tolerate the treatment, the implant should not be applied.
Implants should not be applied in patients who cannot ensure oral hygiene.

What is the difference between implant applications and other treatments?
The implant-supported restoration is completely independent of the adjacent tooth. Thus, the adjacent teeth remain in their natural state and there is no need to cut and reduce them.

What are the stages of implant treatment?
Medical Examination: Clinical and systemic medical examination is performed. The patient's medical history is examined. It is examined whether the patient is suitable for implant treatment.
Implants are surgically placed.
Recovery phase: In order for the implant to fuse with the bone (osseointegration), it is necessary to wait at least 2 months for the lower jaw and 3 months for the upper jaw.
The oral environment is combined with the implant, the mucosa on the implant is opened and the healing cap is attached. It takes 7 days for the gum to heal.
Dental porcelain or zirconium superstructure is placed.

How are the implant applications considered successful?
It is considered successful when appropriate diagnosis and treatment is applied in patients with good general health, good healing potential, and who pays attention to oral hygiene.

What are the symptoms of TMJ (temporomandibular joint) disorders?
Pain during opening the mouth
Gnashing, clicking sound when opening and closing the mouth,
Restriction or jaw locking during opening the mouth
Neck pain or stiffness,
Headache (confused with migraine pain),
Pain during chewing,
Pain in the face,
Pain when closing the teeth on top of each other,
The feeling of fatigue in the jaw during chewing,
Difficulty and pain in opening the jaw, usually in the morning,
Difficulty in yawning,
Ear pains,
Ringing in the ears, grumbling-like sounds,
Sudden change in the way our upper and lower teeth join,
Facial asymmetry, which may be due to hyperplasia of facial muscles,
Deviations in the jaw during opening of the mouth,
A feeling of congestion and pressure in the ear,
Displacement of the disc or degenerative changes in the condyle and disc may also occur in TMJ. Differences in clinical symptoms in TMJ cannot always be explained by disc displacement. The function of the masseters must also be taken into account.

What are the Causes of Lower Temporomandibular Joint Function Disorders?
Direct trauma to the jaws or joint area (as a result of accident or impact),
Unilateral chewing habit,
Missing teeth,
Grinding or clenching of the teeth
Stress, depression, etc.,
Non-physiological tooth closure,
Developmental defects of the joint (hypoplasia, etc.),
Degenerative joint discomfort, osteoarthritis, arthritis,
Autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus,

What are the Medical Examination Methods?
Medical examination of the teeth and closing system,
Medical examination of the masseters,
The medical examination of the temporomandibular joint.

What are the symptoms of the temporomandibular joint disorders?
Ear pain,
Temporomandibular joint pain,
Neck pain,
Temporomandibular joint noises,
Restricted mouth opening,
Lower Jaw Deviation.

What is Endodontics?
In the inner part of the tooth, there are nerves (dental pulp tissue) that have an significant role in feeding and protecting the external tissues. The pulp starts from the crown part of the tooth and progresses to the root tip. The branch of science dealing with the treatment of diseases arising from these tissues is endodontics.

How Is Dental Pulp Tissue Inflamed And How Is It Treated?
The dental pulp tissue of the tooth can become inflamed due to untreated deep dentin caries and severe impacts to the teeth. After this inflammation, there may be very severe pain that starts spontaneously in the tooth, and therefore the dental pulp tissue may lose its vitality. In such cases, “root canal treatment” is applied. The purpose of this treatment is to fill the remaining space with tissue-friendly substances after the inflamed dental pulp tissue is removed. “Root Canal Treatment” is a form of treatment performed under local anesthesia.

What Are the Symptoms Occurring in the Teeth to be Treated with Root Canal Treatment?
Tooth discoloration, extreme sensitivity to cold or heat, pain that starts spontaneously, especially at night, and swelling due to facial abscess are clinical signs that indicate a problem in the dental pulp tissue.

Does Root Canal Treated Teeth Change Color?
Teeth may become brown, pink, or gray as a result of trauma or root canal treatment.

Can the Discoloration of the Teeth Be Treated?
If the cause of the discoloration is trauma, root canal treatment is performed first and then bleaching is applied. If the discoloration has occurred after root canal treatment, the tooth is examined by X-ray. If there is no problem with the root canal treatment, bleaching is done, otherwise the root canal treatment is renewed first and then bleaching is done.

How Is The Dental Nerve Inflamed?
Every person has bacteria in their oral cavity. They do not harm unless undesirable conditions occur. Bacteria combine with many of the foods we eat and cause acids to form in our mouths. If these acids are not removed from the mouth, these substances damage the enamel and cause cavities in the enamel layer. Caries formed in the enamel, in advanced stages, pass into the dentin layer under the enamel layer. The dentin layer causes pain, and when the caries formed is not removed, this time the microorganisms move towards the dental pulp. Meanwhile, the dental pulp engages in various ways to protect itself, which causes pain. In cases where no intervention is made to remove it, after a while, microorganisms cause inflammation by destroying the vessels and nerves in the dental pulp.
Another way in which inflammation can occur in the dental pulp is trauma. An impact on the tooth may cause rupture of the vessels and nerves entering the root of the tooth from the root tip, thus losing the vitality of the tooth. In this case, the addition of microorganisms by any means causes inflammation of the dental pulp. Another way the pulp can become infected is the presence of long-term periodontal (gum and surrounding) disease around the tooth.

What is dental prosthesis?
Prosthesis, which are popularly called bonding or dentures, are artificial teeth made to replace the teeth lost for various reasons or to eliminate aesthetic disorders, so that the person can perform chewing and speaking functions.
If the caries in the mouth have caused excessive damage to the teeth and have caused the teeth to become unable to be filled, porcelain bonding can be applied to save the healthy main tooth.

What is the purpose of prosthesis applications?
The purpose of prosthetic applications is to make artificial teeth that are compatible with the face of the person and that can fulfill the chewing and speaking function closest to the natural.

Who can have the porcelain bonding?
People who have lost a tooth or teeth for any reason
People with broken, discolored or disfigured teeth
Those who do not want to undergo orthodontic treatment
Porcelain bonding can be applied to anyone over the age of 18.

What is metal supported porcelain bonding?
Metal-supported porcelain bonding, as the name suggests, are made by placing metal alloys under the porcelain during construction. In metal-supported porcelain bonding made using Chromium-Cobalt or Chromium-Nickel alloy, which are suitable for the tooth tissue and have the necessary durability, the porcelain placed on the metal is affected by the metal under it. Since the metal in the basis does not transmit light, it creates a matte appearance and a dark line at the gum level. Therefore, its application to the teeth in the anterior area does not provide an aesthetic appearance.

What is zirconium supported porcelain?
Zirconium supported porcelain bondings are prosthesis that use zirconium alloy, which has a white color instead of metal, as a basis.
What is the difference between zirconium supported porcelain bonding and metal supported bondings?
Zirconium bondings,
Has an appearance very close to natural teeth.
Reflects light.
White alloy is used as a basis.
It is compatible with the human body, does not cause an allergic reaction.

What are the full porcelain bondings?
They are made of reinforced porcelain. As the name suggests, no metal or any other substance is used in the basis. It is more costly than other porcelain bondings.

What is Laminate Bonding (Laminate Veneer)?
Laminate, also called leaf porcelain, is an aesthetic application made by gluing a layer prepared from porcelain to the front surfaces of the teeth on anterior teeth with aesthetic problems. These porcelain bondings are a thin, semi-permeable layer. They are prepared and positioned precisely on an existing tooth. It is applied by removing a very thin layer from the tooth surface. It is very thin and does not contain metal.

Who can have laminate bonding?
People who are not satisfied with the appearance of their teeth aesthetically,
People who do not want to have orthodontic treatment,
People with fractures or splits in the anterior teeth
It can be applied to people with discoloration in the anterior teeth.

Are laminates long-lasting? Are they durable?
In order to use it for a long time after the leaf porcelain is made, attention should be paid to oral care. In addition, very hard food should not be bitten and habits such as nail biting should be given up.

How long does it take to prepare porcelain crown-bridge (veneers)? What are the stages?
Once the examination has been performed and your treatment has been decided, the first stage is the measurement of the oral and dental structure. The teeth are cut and made smaller so that the bonding can be placed on the teeth to be covered with porcelain bonding. The measurement taken is sent to the prosthesis laboratory, and the basis is awaited for fitting. After the fitting related to the basis (gum compliance, height control) are done, the aesthetic fitting stage is started. After choosing a tooth color that is compatible with the patient's skin and face, the final fitting is performed. When the desired result is achieved, the process is completed by performing the bonding process called cementation. This process covers a time of approximately 10-15 days.

How long do porcelain bondings last?
Porcelain bondings have a lifespan. Porcelain bondings can be used for about 10 years without any problems. With good oral care, the lifespan of these bondings can be extended.
Worn porcelain bondings can cause foul breath, gum disease and tooth loss as a result of this disease.

How should the care for porcelain bondings be?
For various reasons, many people use dental prosthesis called bondings, bridges, etc. The use of prosthesis does not mean that less attention will be paid to oral and dental care. Although there is a common belief among the people that prosthesis do not need as much care as real teeth, the surface of the prosthesis is more retainer than the enamel layer of the tooth, in other words, more plaque formation is observed on the surface of the prosthesis. However, prosthesis that are cleaned regularly and effectively have a longer lifespan and are important for oral hygiene.
If prosthesis care is not performed regularly, many discomforts may be encountered such as the following:
Foul breath
Gum disease
Stain on the prosthesis, Stain on prosthetic
Infection in the mouth

What are the procedures for the infant patients with cleft lip and palate?
Cleft lip and palate often adversely affect the development and shape of the nose. Nose shaping extensions to be added to the nutrition plaque ensure that the nostrils take the appropriate shape and form.
The infants born with cleft lip anomaly are required to be referred to an orthodontic specialist within the first 24 hours. Orthodontic specialists have undergone a detailed training and educational process regarding the developmental processes of such infants. First of all, it is required to be ensured that nutrition plaques are to be made and the infants are to be fed.
Custom made plates for each anomaly type allow the clefts of the palate to close gradually with the growth process.
With the nutrition plaques to be replaced at regular intervals, it is ensured that the infant gains weight and the speech reflex develops.

What are the special conditions covered by the treatment apart from the routine treatments of orthodontics?
Cleft lip and palate are congenital anomalies observed in isolation or accompanied with a syndrome. Genetic factors, radiation, use of medication, mother with diabetes, malnutrition, consanguineous marriage, and big age difference between parents can be considered among the etiological factors leading to this anomaly.
Cleft lip and palate refer to anomalies usually occurring when the upper jaw or lip is not fully conjugate in the infants. The prevalence of cleft lip with or without cleft palate is 1 in 1000 births; while the prevalence of cleft palate alone is 1 in 2500 births. Genetic characteristics are considered to be involved to a greater extent in cleft lip with or without cleft palate than in cleft palate cases alone. Although there is absence of cause for the cleft lip and palate, genetic factors, environmental factors, maternal medication use during pregnancy, maternal diseases, maternal smoking and alcohol habits, infection, folic acid and vitamin B deficiencies may lead to this health condition. In certain infants born with cleft lip and palate, other congenital anomalies can be observed in their bodies other than cleft lip and palate. For this reason, babies born with cleft lip and palate defects are subjected to a detailed general medical examination after birth.
Cleft lip can be very mild in the form of a simple notch on the lip while it can be in the form of a complete slit extending into the nostril. Sometimes the cleft can also include the gum and the dentine. Cleft lip can be observed in the form of unilateral or bilateral. Cleft palate starts from the uvula and extends forward. Sometimes cleft can only be in the soft palate, and sometimes it may extend fully forward to include the hard palate or even extend further up to the lip.
Most substantial challenge encountered by the infants born with this anomaly is the nutrition. The swallowing reflex in infants develops within the first 24 hours. İnfants with an irregular palate are unable to develop a swallowing reflex, and the milk fed through breast or bottle comes out of the nose. While these infants are feeding, the infant is required to be maintained in a semi-upright position while feeding so that the milk given can directly proceed to the stomach without escaping into the respiratory tract and Eustachian tube. When the infant is fed while lying down, the milk given may escape into the Eustachian tube and result in ear inflammation. While the infant is fed, the head is required to be held higher than the stomach.
The treatment of cleft lip and palate is performed in a multidisciplinary approach by plastic surgeons, orthodontists, speech therapists and child psychology-psychiatry specialists.

What are the treatment options for adult patients who do not want their orthodontic braces to appear?
Aesthetic Braces
Those are tooth-colored materials not having an exposure of gray appearance when seen from the outside and are very unnoticeable.

Lingual Treatment
This treatment is one of the stationary treatment methods. The stationary appliances used as attached to the teeth are on the tongue side, not the lip side. Thus, nothing is absolutely visible on the teeth.
As for this treatment method, the duration of the treatment is slightly longer than the stationary treatments applied from the vestibule, and the biggest challenge experienced by the patients is the speech disorder it leads. Since the appliances are on the tongue side, the phonation of some letters such as "t", "s", "d" shall be very challenging, as sounds shall come out by hitting these appliances. Also be minor irritations can be available at the tip of the tongue. It may take up to 6 months for patients to get used to them. This method of treatment is a little more costly than the rest.

Invisalign or Clear Align
It is a form of treatment in which the crowding in the teeth is corrected with invisible transparent palate, named as the "invisible braces" in English. This method corrects the crowding in your teeth without the requirement to wear braces. In this method, the size of the teeth of the patient is taken and transparent plaques (correctors) that shall ensure the movement of the teeth in accordance with the sizes are prepared with three-dimensional special computerized systems. These correctors, which shall ensure the correct alignment of the teeth, are replaced at regular intervals. Stationary braces are not used in this form of treatment, they are removable appliances. Appliances must be fitted at regular distances in between.

Which Disorders Can Be Corrected With Orthodontic Treatment?
Any anomalies concerning the teeth and jaws can be corrected.

What is Orthognathic Surgical Treatment?
It refers to the surgical correction of jaws and teeth along with the orthodontic treatment. In case of an adult patient (growth and development is completed) and in the event that the mismatch between the lower and upper jaws is too severe to be corrected by tooth extraction alone, orthognathic surgery is required to be applied.
As for the orthognathic surgery treatment, collaboration between plastic surgeon, orthodontist and dentist is required accordingly. Every doctor involved in the treatment team is required to establish the correct diagnosis, draw up and organize the treatment plan and necessary treatments, and be in contact with the physicians in other disciplines when required.
Based on the type of malocclusion, surgical procedure is performed after a pre-surgical stationary orthodontic treatment between 6 months and 1 year, and stationary orthodontic treatment is proceeded with for an average of 4-6 months after the surgical procedure, and the active treatment process of the patient is then concluded accordingly.

What are the Treatment Options in Orthodontics?
Removable treatment appliances
Stationary treatment appliances
It refers to a treatment method applied to eliminate the position disorders in the teeth by applying stationary appliances on the vestibule (lip) side or lingual (tongue) side of the teeth. Depending on the age of the patient and the type of malocclusion, treatment alternatives with or without permanent tooth extraction are applied on an individual basis.
Fixed appliances are divided into two main groups as metal or transparent;
Metal Brackets; they are the oldest known orthodontic treatment appliances. Those are made of stainless-steel materials. Since they are metal, they expose a metal-colored gray appearance on the teeth.
Self-ligating Brackets; those are the brackets with covers and the ability of the wire to retain placed in the bracket is made by the covers on the bracket. In treatments with these systems, the follow-up duration of 1-1.5 months could be extended. Brackets are also available with a frictionless system.

When should the first orthodontic examination be?
Orthodontic examination is recommended to be performed for children before the age of 10. Since enough permanent teeth are available at that age, it is possible to discover possible issues.
Orthodontic examination is highly recommended for early diagnosis of problems that may have disruptive impact on the growth and development in children aged 7-8 years. In certain cases, although the problem is identified in early stages, the orthodontist may request the child to visit for a check-up at regular intervals and wait for the most appropriate time for treatment.
In the event that the orthodontic treatment is initiated at early ages, the dilation appliances can be modified to adjust the width of the palate as the children grow, and thus, the teeth shall grow in a shapely and smooth manner.

Are dental X-rays detrimental to health?
The risk that dental x-rays pose to children's health is minimal. The amount of radiation is minimized by putting on a lead apron.

When should I bring my child for the first dental check-up?
In order to prevent dental problems in children, it is recommended to check with the dentist when the first tooth erupts before they turn 1 year old.

Are milk teeth really important to my child?
Milk teeth are important for many reasons. They enable the child to speak and chew properly, and also guide the permanent teeth eruption. Untreated milk tooth caries leads to pain, foul breath, difficulty in chewing, malnutrition and ugly appearance. Untreated dental disorders in this period may cause tooth decay, disorder in jaw development and general health problems (from rheumatism to heart diseases) in the future. Therefore, caries in milk teeth should be treated without making the mistake of "new ones will replace it anyway".
Decays in milk teeth may cause the child to get to know about the pain at a very young age and to have some phobias in the future. In addition, these caries can cause very early loss of milk teeth.

What should I do if my child has a toothache?
The area around the aching tooth is cleaned. Gargle with warm salt water and remove any stuck food residues with dental floss. Aspirin or similar drugs are not placed on the tooth. A pain reliever that has been tried before can be given and the child is taken to a dentist as soon as possible.

How can I protect my child from dental caries during breastfeeding period?
Babies should not be breastfed while they are sleeping, and the habit of sleeping with a feeding bottle should be avoided. It should be ensured that the babies drink water after the feeding process. In addition, children should be taught how to brush their teeth. When the baby's first milk teeth start to appear in her mouth, her teeth should be cleaned with the help of a clean cheesecloth or gauze patch after feeding When they are 1.5-2 years old, their teeth can be brushed with the help of a small brush. A pedodontist examination is required to check the child's teeth and gums. Children's first dental check-up should be before the age of 1.

What is fissure sealant?
The indentations and protrusions on the chewing surfaces of the teeth are called pits and fissures. These anatomical formations are mostly areas that the toothbrush cannot reach due to their narrow, thin and deep structures. Due to the fact that they cannot be cleaned effectively, caries begin easily in these parts of the teeth with the effect of bacteria. Pit and fissure sealants are filling materials with a flowing consistency, and they close these areas and therefore the teeth are protected from caries.

When should the toothpaste be started to use and what should be the amount ?
Children should be introduced to toothpaste around the age of 2-3. Before this age, children's teeth should be cleaned using water and a toothbrush. When toothpaste is started to be used, especially those produced for children should be preferred and it should be used in very small amounts (the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry defines this amount as the size of a small pea). While brushing children's teeth, they should be encouraged to spit out the toothpaste and not be allowed to swallow it.

How do pedodontists help prevent fear of the dentist?
Pedodontists are trained to allow children to have dental treatments without fear. It is normal for children younger than 3 to experience anxiety at dentist appointments.

What should I use to clean my child's teeth?
With the help of a toothbrush, the bacteria that cause caries can be eliminated. At least once a day, before putting the child to bed, this should be done with a small-headed soft toothbrush, preferably with children's toothbrushes.