Periodontics is the branch of dentistry that examines teeth and tissues around, diagnosis, treatment and post-treatment of diseases in these tissues, to protect dental health.

Healthy gums are, usually in a light pink color, matter surface appearance of orange peel, no bleeding and not thickening on the tooth surface.

Causes of Gum Diseases

The first cause of Gum diseases is the microbial plaques hosting microorganisms on the surfaces of the teeth, dental-gingival junction and intersection between teeth as a result of rare and uneffective brushing. If this plaque is not removed, harmful substances produced by micro-organisms can cause tooth decay and gum disease.

Microbial dental plaque is very difficult to determine,because it has the same color as thetooth. The structure of theplaque is soft therefore, toothbrushing and flossing can easily move away from the surface of the tooth. If this plaque is not cleared in time, this plaque hardens with time and “scaling” occurs.

Rough surface structure of scale causes a rapid accumulation of plaque. Thus, the inflammation progresses more quickly. Gum diseases varies from simple gum inflammation (gingivistis) to  severe infections (periodontitis) causing bone decay of the jaw, teeth loss.

With the disease gums swell,turn red, bleed, pulled the tooth length is extended, mouth smell occurs, the teeth are replaced, break,open, and eventually lost. One of the most important signs of gum disease is bleeding that can be easily noticed by the person during tooth brushing,eating hard foods, or sometimes occurs spontaneously.

Diagnosis of Periodontal Diseases

If gums bleed, enlarged, there is ocumulated calculus, teeth are lengthen, there is gingival recession, some teeth replaced, widen teeth gap, teeth shake, there is bad smell and a bad taste in the mouth, it is necessary to see a specialist. As known, the most important factor is microbial plaque, but systemic,environmental, and genetic factors are also important for the development of the disease.

Relationship Between Systemic Diseases and Gum Diseases

Periodontal disease is a risk factor in the heart and lung disease, diabetes, and premature birth development. Developmental mechanisms of heart disease and periodontal disease are similar. Both diseases are more frequently occurs on the persons who are in old ages, male sex, low socio-cultural level, smoker, high blood pressure, stressfull.
In studies it is found that, people with oral infection have the risk of a heart attack, morethan 30% compared to the ones without oral infection. Harmful micro-organisms and excreted substance causing gum disease play an important role on diabetes.
It was shown by scientific studies that,one person with poorly controlled diabetes have more periodontal diseases than the one controlling diabetes who has the same level of oral hygiene. Periodontal treatment controls blood sugar, thus control of diabetes becomes easier.
Microorganisms and secrete harmful substances that are effective periodontal disease, constitutes a threat to an unborn baby. Babies of women with periodontal disease significantly increases the incidence of preterm birth and miscarriage.

Gum Disease and Drug Use

The drugs used for the treatment of various systemic diseases, can result growthin gums. Anticonvulsant drugs used in thetreatment of epilepsy may cause, tight, pale, pink enlargement on the  front surface of the gums, around restorations, the inside edge of the gums between the teeth and the gums, especially in anterior regions.
Immunosuppressive drugs used after organ – tissue transplantation may lead to growth of gum on the front surfaces of the teeth, especially in anterior regions and around the restorations more frequently.Heart and calcium channel blockers are used inpatients with hypertension may present a growth in the pale pink color.

Tobaco use is a risk factor for Gumdisease!

Smoking is a risk factor in theincrease of periodontal bone loss and known to increase tissue loss in periodontal treatments. It is reported that more than 5 times a day smoker patients’ treatment success rate has fallen. This is because the effect of smoking on the vasculature, disrupting the function of defensive cells, affect the synthesis of collagen and inflammatory response displacement.

Does gum disease show familial transmission?

The first reason,but some people are genetically more prone than others to these diseases is well known.

Treatment of Gum Disease

The purpose of periodontal treatment is to heal soft and hard tissue diseases surrounding the teeth and correction of destruction caused by these diseases. Therefore, the first phase of treatment is to remove dental plaque on teeth, by active brushing / using dental-floss / using interdental brushes by the patient and the second phase is cleaning and removal of plaque remainings by the dentist.

This stage is known as the initial treatment and is the basis of periodontal procedures. It can be a satisfactory treatment on basic gingival inflammation, and can beused as a preparation  for periodontal operations of advanced cases.

Inflamed gums, enlarged gums, gumspulled the tooth-gum have occurred due to melting of the gaps between the jawbones and is usually performed under local anesthesia to treat osteoporosis, new bone formation targeted help, biomaterials(bone powder, membranes,etc.) used in surgical proceduresthe “Periodontal surgery is called”.

Periodontal operations can only be relevant gums or all tissues that surround gums. If theproblem is about only gums, mouth disease is removed by cutting overgrown gums,a different operation is applied if it is related to deep tissues and bone resorption occurs.

Gum i sremoved, inflamed tissues are cleaned, bone is aligned and various biomaterials are used to create new bone. Then the gum tissueis sutured and placed so as to cover bone and allowed to heal.1 or 2 weeks after, the stitches are removed.

With an interval of 3-6 months after the operation, checks are necessary. Tissue reconstruction is expected by the use of biomaterials, with the disappearance of  inflammation, stopping the progression of the disease and creatinga climate that the patient would make effective cleaning by him/herself.

As a result of all of these, the patient can keep natural gums to function for many years.

The Result of Treatment

After the treatment, teeth are clean, gums are in light pink color, have hard consistency and no bleeding. If you have very advanced level bone destruction associated with the disease, teeth lengthen may occur after the operation. However, the tissues that support the teeth are healthy. Today, the level of dental technologyis sufficient to solve almost all of the periodontal problems.

However, if the remaining amount of bone around the tooth is at the untreatable level, the tooth extraction is included in the treatment plan. The success of periodontal treatment depends on many factors. There are some reasons to reduce the success of periodontal treatment. Examples of these are diabetes, excess alcohol consumption, smoking, some mental disorders, blood disorders, immune system disorders,use of cortisone and radiation therapy.

Each patient’s gingiva and bone healing capacity varies. Also, specificand rigorous maintenance of post-operative wound, tooth brushing and interdental cleaning are critical to the success of treatment.